Operating System

Operating System

Operating system (OS) is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs and applications. Computer operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the storage drives, and controlling peripheral devices, such as printers. Introduction [4L]
Introduction to OS. Operating system functions, evaluation of O.S., Different types of O.S.: batch, multi-programmed, time-sharing,
real-time, distributed, parallel.
System Structure[3L]
Computer system operation, I/O structure, storage structure, storage hierarchy, different types of protections, operating system
structure (simple, layered, virtual machine), O/S services, system calls.
Process Management [17L]
Processes [3L]: Concept of processes, process scheduling, operations on processes, co-operating processes, inter-process
Threads [2L]: overview, benefits of threads, user and kernel threads.
CPU scheduling [3L]: scheduling criteria, preemptive & non-preemptive scheduling, scheduling algorithms (FCFS, SJF, RR,
priority), algorithm evaluation, multi-processor scheduling.
Process Synchronization [5L]: background, critical section problem, critical region, synchronization hardware, classical
problems of synchronization, semaphores.
Deadlocks [4L]: system model, deadlock characterization, methods for handling deadlocks, deadlock prevention, deadlock
avoidance, deadlock detection, recovery from deadlock.
Storage Management [19L]
Memory Management [5L]: background, logical vs. physical address space, swapping, contiguous memory allocation, paging,
segmentation, segmentation with paging.
Virtual Memory [3L]: background, demand paging, performance, page replacement, page replacement algorithms (FCFS,
LRU), allocation of frames, thrashing.
File Systems [4L]: file concept, access methods, directory structure, file system structure, allocation methods (contiguous,
linked, indexed), free-space management (bit vector, linked list, grouping), directory implementation (linear list, hash table),
efficiency & performance.
I/O Management [4L]: I/O hardware, polling, interrupts, DMA, application I/O interface (block and character devices, network
devices, clocks and timers, blocking and nonblocking I/O), kernel I/O subsystem (scheduling, buffering, caching, spooling and
device reservation, error handling), performance.
Disk Management [3L]: disk structure, disk scheduling (FCFS, SSTF, SCAN,C-SCAN) , disk reliability, disk formatting, boot
block, bad blocks.
Protection & Security [4L]
Goals of protection, domain of protection, security problem, authentication, one time password, program threats, system threats,
threat monitoring, encryption.
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